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Jones, Gavin W. Links between urbanization and sectoral shifts in employment in Java.

Urban Development and Water Environment Changes in Asian Megacities |

Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 20 3 — The thoroughgoing urbanization of East and Southeast Asia. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 38 3 — Jones, Gavin. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 37 1 The changing employment structure of the extended Jakarta Metropolitan Region.

Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 32 1 — Demographic and employment change in the mega-cities of Southeast and East Asia. Third World Planning Review 22 1 :1— Kelley, Allen C. A Dynamic General Equilibrium Approach.

The World Future Biggest Mega-Projects 2018-2050 (Asia)

Princeton: Princeton University Press. Jones and Toto Sastrasuanda, Third World Planning Review 23 2 : — McGee, Terence G. The emergence of desakota regions in Asia: expanding a hypothesis. Ginsburg, B. Koppel and T. McGee, Terence G.. In Terence G. Mera, Koichi.

Population distribution policies: the need for caution. Population Studies No.

1. Introduction

New York. Montgomery, Mark R. How large is too large? Implications of the city size literature for population policy and research. Economic Development and Cultural Change 36 4 — Ocampo, Romeo B. The Metro Manila mega-region. McGee and I. Population Briefs.

Urbanization Takes on New Dimensions in Asia’s Population Giants

Rigg, Jonathan. London: Routledge. Robinson, Ira M. Shand, R. Tim Relawan Untuk Kemanusiaan. United Nations. World Urbanization Prospects as Assessed in Jones 1 Email author 1. Personalised recommendations. Some spots in Jakarta are sinking at a rate of 20 to 28 centimeters a year. Because the cost of failure is so big, you need to have a plan for the worst-case scenario. Mumbai and other fast-growing coastal megacities in Asia are particularly vulnerable to climate-related flooding.

These cities of 10 million or more often drive their national economies and are home to both rich and poor. Families stroll eating ice cream, children chase street vendors peddling cotton candy, and friends squeeze together for selfies framed against the blue-gray waters of the Arabian Sea. Dark, roiling monsoon clouds loom over the horizon, as waves crash a meter away against the concrete barricade.

The promenade was built a century ago when India was part of the colonial British Empire. Today, seawater regularly spills over the promenade during high tide. The state of Maharashtra, where Mumbai is located, acknowledged this data deficit in its climate change plan. Nevertheless, the state has so far ignored a Indian Supreme Court order to release maps demarcating future flood lines.

But the state does recommend that rainfall and sea level trends be considered in new construction projects and public infrastructure. He may have a point, with the rate of global sea rise fast accelerating — from a yearly average of 1. Global sea level rise could be kept to a lower projection range blue if humankind curbs greenhouse gas emissions.

Today, the world is on track for a much higher level of rise tan. And while global sea level projections up to are considered reliable, the situation beyond midcentury is less clear.

Science News

Much depends on whether humankind can limit global emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping atmospheric gases. Princeton University climatologist Michael Oppenheimer is not optimistic. The annual monsoon, the seasonal shift in winds that brings flooding rains to Mumbai, adds an extra layer of uncertainty to projecting how much flooding will accompany sea rise, he says.

The future of this South Asian weather system has been difficult to predict, thanks in part to the mysterious influence of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. That warmth partly fuels monsoon storm clouds.

Still, most studies suggest that the monsoon rains will increase. Every June, as the rain starts falling, she unplugs the electronics in their ground floor apartment and moves her silk saris out from under the bed. Across the city, the rains rage against the glass windows of luxury high-rises. Public transportation and street commerce come to a halt. Last year was particularly bad: In 24 hours, about 33 centimeters of rain fell. Residents turned off their power for fear of getting electrocuted. As water rose inside their homes, Murali and a few neighbors used an iron rod to smash a hole through the wall surrounding their backyard to let the water flow out.

Even as such flooding worsens, she has what some might call misplaced faith that things will work out. Man will work against what nature is proposing to do.

Module Overview

Large parts of the city are built on land that, years ago, was mostly underwater. When the Portuguese settled the region in the 16th century, they maintained Mumbai as a sleepy collection of coastal islands. But the British, who took over in , reimagined Mumbai as a contiguous landmass and created a peninsula by filling in land gaps to connect the islands even in the wet season. Much of Mumbai is built atop landfill black that connects several islands green in the middle of Bombay Harbor. Those passages once allowed water to flow through the system at high tide and during monsoon rains.

The aim was to trigger discussion and preparation for a possible future economic catastrophe. She and her team offered guarded impact estimates based on hypothetical scenarios of between one and five meters of global sea level rise, using satellite images of coastal outlines and local elevations. That report projected that one meter of sea rise would cost the world 1. She faced a wave of hostility and derision for the effort.

One tool, by the U. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, shows past global sea level trends based on tide gauges. But the app does not give projections. And it relies on sometimes patchy data. The Maharashtra government says local sea levels are rising 1. To boost accuracy, the team recently added a component to the app that accounts for the fact that water expands as it warms. Still, true sea level rise projections involve complex computer modeling of overlapping systems. For Mumbai, the JPL app foresees at least another 2. Those estimates could soon be revised upward.

Bangladesh has long built coastal sea walls of stacked mud, which may help prevent ocean storm surges from cascading inland to Dhaka.