We also discussed velocity and speed and how they factor into car crashes. My son and my husband researched and compared tires and how they type of tires you have on your car effects how you drive. They also discussed gas-saving measures a pertinent topic for my boy who will soon be driving!! Presentation: I think public speaking is important, so my son was charged with creating a presentation of some kind to summarize what he had learned and present to the family.
He chose to make a power point, and use his graphs to give a lecture on cars, and it was good!! Of course, you could take a topic like this and go in so many different directions. I think when you are creating a unit study, the more general the topic the easier it is to find activities to build into it. The thing I like about unit studies is that kids can use their different strengths throughout the study. If you have a creative child like I do you can ask them to design their own car which he did!
If your child is the read and recite type, they can do that too. For us, unit studies make learning more interesting and fun. When I first started homeschooling, the thought of creating my own study seemed very daunting, but I have found it to be rather easy. As the parent, you know your child best, why not build their education around the things they love?? Have you created your own unit study?
Leave me a comment if you have any. A Blog Cruise where we share to how to do lots of great stuff! Schoolhouse Review Crew. The invention, production, and distribution of the automobile have radically altered American society in the twentieth century. Perhaps more than other inventions, the automobile transformed American society, prompting some historians to characterize the United States as a "car culture. First, students will learn about Henry Ford, whose innovations transformed manufacturing and made automobiles affordable for virtually all Americans.
Second, students will be asked to think about the different ways in which the automobile changed American society.
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To introduce students to the technological innovations that contributed to mass production of the automobile. To demonstrate the short- and long-term cultural effects of widespread automobile ownership on the United States. Students should understand that manufacturing techniques changed over time. By the early 20th century, many American industries were using mass-production methods. Still, businesses had not yet attained the level of efficiency we are familiar with today. Henry Ford applied the concept of efficient production to the automobile industry.
In doing so, Ford significantly lowered the cost of the automobile, making it affordable for most Americans. Ford used a number of different techniques to increase efficiency at the Ford Motor Company. Students should be introduced to the concepts of interchangeable parts and Taylorism, both of which were used in the Ford plant. For a good explanation of these techniques, look here.
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More information is available here. What was the relationship between production and cost of automobiles?
Unit 1 Video Case Study Making Cars Affordable.docx - 1 In...
Such activities will enhance students' abilities to read and interpret data and draw conclusions from such data. In the late s and early s, Edsel—who was president of the company—thought Ford had to come to some sort of collective bargaining agreement with the unions because the violence, work disruptions, and bitter stalemates could not go on forever. But Ford, who still had the final veto in the company on a de facto basis even if not an official one, refused to cooperate. For several years, he kept Bennett in charge of talking to the unions that were trying to organize the Ford Motor Company.
Sorensen's memoir  makes clear that Ford's purpose in putting Bennett in charge was to make sure no agreements were ever reached. Sorensen recounted  that a distraught Henry Ford was very close to following through with a threat to break up the company rather than cooperate, but his wife Clara told him she would leave him if he destroyed the family business.
In her view, it would not be worth the chaos it would create. Ford complied with his wife's ultimatum, and even agreed with her in retrospect. Overnight, the Ford Motor Company went from the most stubborn holdout among automakers to the one with the most favorable UAW contract terms. The contract was signed in June Now you're in here and we've given you a union shop and more than you got out of them.
That puts you on our side, doesn't it? We can fight General Motors and Wall Street together, eh? Ford, like other automobile companies, entered the aviation business during World War I , building Liberty engines. After the war, it returned to auto manufacturing until , when Ford acquired the Stout Metal Airplane Company.
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Ford's most successful aircraft was the Ford 4AT Trimotor , often called the "Tin Goose" because of its corrugated metal construction. It used a new alloy called Alclad that combined the corrosion resistance of aluminum with the strength of duralumin. The plane was similar to Fokker 's V. VII-3m, and some say that Ford's engineers surreptitiously measured the Fokker plane and then copied it. The Trimotor first flew on June 11, , and was the first successful U.
Several variants were also used by the U. Ford has been honored by the Smithsonian Institution for changing the aviation industry. Ford opposed war, which he viewed as a terrible waste,   and supported causes that opposed military intervention. He and about other prominent peace leaders traveled there. Ford's Episcopalian pastor, Reverend Samuel S.
Marquis, accompanied him on the mission. Marquis headed Ford's Sociology Department from to Ford talked to President Wilson about the mission but had no government support. His group went to neutral Sweden and the Netherlands to meet with peace activists. A target of much ridicule, Ford left the ship as soon as it reached Sweden. Ford plants in the United Kingdom produced Fordson tractors to increase the British food supply, as well as trucks and aircraft engines. When the U. In , with the war on and the League of Nations a growing issue in global politics, President Woodrow Wilson , a Democrat, encouraged Ford to run for a Michigan seat in the U.
Wilson believed that Ford could tip the scales in Congress in favor of Wilson's proposed League. Ford wrote back: "If they want to elect me let them do so, but I won't make a penny's investment. When Wilson made a major speaking tour in the summer of to promote the League, Ford helped fund the attendant publicity. Ford had opposed America's entry into World War II   and continued to believe that international business could generate the prosperity that would head off wars.
Ford "insisted that war was the product of greedy financiers who sought profit in human destruction"; in he went so far as to claim that the torpedoing of U. Like many other businessmen of the Great Depression era, he never liked or entirely trusted the Franklin Roosevelt Administration, and thought Roosevelt was inching the U. However, Ford continued to do business with Nazi Germany , including the manufacture of war materiel. Beginning in , with the requisitioning of between and French POWs to work as slave laborers, Ford-Werke contravened Article 31 of the Geneva Convention.
The number of slave laborers grew as the war expanded although Wallace makes it clear that companies in Germany were not required by the Nazi authorities to use slave laborers. When Rolls-Royce sought a U. He "lined up behind the war effort" when the U. Once the U. Ford broke ground on Willow Run in the spring of , and the first B came off the line in October At its peak in , the Willow Run plant produced Bs per month, and by Ford was completing each B in eighteen hours, with one rolling off the assembly line every 58 minutes.
When Edsel Ford died of cancer in , aged only 49, Henry Ford nominally resumed control of the company, but a series of strokes in the late s had left him increasingly debilitated, and his mental ability was fading. Ford was increasingly sidelined, and others made decisions in his name. Ford grew jealous of the publicity Sorensen received and forced Sorensen out in They threatened to sell off their stock, which amounted to three quarters of the company's total shares, if he refused. Ford was reportedly infuriated, but had no choice but to give in.
In the early s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published strongly antisemitic views. At the same time, Ford had a reputation as one of the few major corporations actively hiring black workers, and was not accused of discrimination against Jewish workers or suppliers. In , Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G. Liebold , purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, The Dearborn Independent. The Independent ran for eight years, from until , with Liebold as editor.
Every Ford franchise nationwide had to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers. During this period, Ford emerged as "a respected spokesman for right-wing extremism and religious prejudice", reaching around , readers through his newspaper. In Germany, Ford's antisemitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch , founder of several antisemitic parties and a member of the Reichstag. In a letter written in , Heinrich Himmler described Ford as "one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters".
Ludecke was introduced to Ford by Siegfried Wagner son of the composer Richard Wagner and his wife Winifred , both Nazi sympathizers and antisemites. Ludecke asked Ford for a contribution to the Nazi cause, but was apparently refused. While Ford's articles were denounced by the Anti-Defamation League ADL , the articles explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against Jews, but blamed the Jews for provoking incidents of mass violence.
According to trial testimony, he wrote almost nothing. Friends and business associates have said they warned Ford about the contents of the Independent and that he probably never read the articles he claimed he only read the headlines. A libel lawsuit was brought by San Francisco lawyer and Jewish farm cooperative organizer Aaron Sapiro in response to the antisemitic remarks, and led Ford to close the Independent in December News reports at the time quoted him as saying he was shocked by the content and unaware of its nature.
During the trial, the editor of Ford's "Own Page", William Cameron, testified that Ford had nothing to do with the editorials even though they were under his byline. Cameron testified at the libel trial that he never discussed the content of the pages or sent them to Ford for his approval. Miller, a former Dearborn Independent employee, swore under oath that Ford had told him he intended to expose Sapiro.
That Cameron would have continued to publish such anti-Semitic material without Ford's explicit instructions seemed unthinkable to those who knew both men. Stanley Ruddiman, a Ford family intimate, remarked that "I don't think Mr. Cameron ever wrote anything for publication without Mr. Ford's approval. They formed a coalition of Jewish groups for the same purpose and raised constant objections in the Detroit press.
Before leaving his presidency early in , Woodrow Wilson joined other leading Americans in a statement that rebuked Ford and others for their antisemitic campaign. A boycott against Ford products by Jews and liberal Christians also had an impact, and Ford shut down the paper in , recanting his views in a public letter to Sigmund Livingston , president of the ADL. Wallace also found that Ford's apology was likely, or at least partly, motivated by a business that was slumping as a result of his antisemitism, repelling potential buyers of Ford cars.
Ford's apology was well received. According to Pool and Pool ,  Ford's retraction and apology which were written by others were not even truly signed by him rather, his signature was forged by Harry Bennett , and Ford never privately recanted his antisemitic views, stating in "I hope to republish The International Jew again some time.
In July , before the outbreak of war, the German consul at Cleveland gave Ford, on his 75th birthday, the award of the Grand Cross of the German Eagle , the highest medal Nazi Germany could bestow on a foreigner. The purpose of the letter was to clarify some general misconceptions that he subscribed or supported directly or indirectly, "any agitation which would promote antagonism toward my Jewish fellow citizens.
Case Study on Productivity (Part 2) – Henry Ford and the Model T
Distribution of The International Jew was halted in through legal action by Ford, despite complications from a lack of copyright. Extremist groups often recycle the material; it still appears on antisemitic and neo-Nazi websites. Testifying at Nuremberg , convicted Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach who, in his role as military governor of Vienna , deported 65, Jews to camps in Poland, stated:. The decisive anti-Semitic book I was reading and the book that influenced my comrades was I read it and became anti-Semitic. The book made a great influence on myself and my friends because we saw in Henry Ford the representative of success and also the representative of a progressive social policy.
Robert Lacey wrote in Ford: The Men and the Machines that a close Willow Run associate of Ford reported that when he was shown newsreel footage of the Nazi concentration camps , he "was confronted with the atrocities which finally and unanswerably laid bare the bestiality of the prejudice to which he contributed, he collapsed with a stroke — his last and most serious. Ford's philosophy was one of economic independence for the United States. His River Rouge Plant became the world's largest industrial complex, pursuing vertical integration to such an extent that it could produce its own steel.
Ford's goal was to produce a vehicle from scratch without reliance on foreign trade. He believed in the global expansion of his company. He believed that international trade and cooperation led to international peace, and he used the assembly line process and production of the Model T to demonstrate it.
He opened Ford assembly plants in Britain and Canada in , and soon became the biggest automotive producer in those countries. In , Ford cooperated with Giovanni Agnelli of Fiat to launch the first Italian automotive assembly plants. The first plants in Germany were built in the s with the encouragement of Herbert Hoover and the Commerce Department, which agreed with Ford's theory that international trade was essential to world peace. Ford sent his engineers and technicians to the Soviet Union to help install the equipment and train the working force, while over a hundred Soviet engineers and technicians were stationed at Ford's plants in Detroit and Dearborn "for the purpose of learning the methods and practice of manufacture and assembly in the Company's plants.
All the world is bound to catch some good from it.
Henry Ford - ASME
By , Ford was manufacturing one third of all the world's automobiles. It set up numerous subsidiaries that sold or assembled the Ford cars and trucks:. Ford's image transfixed Europeans, especially the Germans, arousing the "fear of some, the infatuation of others, and the fascination among all". They saw the size, tempo, standardization, and philosophy of production demonstrated at the Ford Works as a national service—an "American thing" that represented the culture of the United States. Both supporters and critics insisted that Fordism epitomized American capitalist development, and that the auto industry was the key to understanding economic and social relations in the United States.
As one German explained, "Automobiles have so completely changed the American's mode of life that today one can hardly imagine being without a car. It is difficult to remember what life was like before Mr. Ford began preaching his doctrine of salvation". In My Life and Work , Ford predicted that if greed, racism, and short-sightedness could be overcome, then economic and technological development throughout the world would progress to the point that international trade would no longer be based on what today would be called colonial or neocolonial models and would truly benefit all peoples.
Ford maintained an interest in auto racing from to and began his involvement in the sport as both a builder and a driver, later turning the wheel over to hired drivers. He entered stripped-down Model Ts in races, finishing first although later disqualified in an "ocean-to-ocean" across the United States race in , and setting a one-mile 1. Ford dropped out of the race and soon thereafter dropped out of racing permanently, citing dissatisfaction with the sport's rules, demands on his time by the booming production of the Model Ts, and his low opinion of racing as a worthwhile activity.
In My Life and Work Ford speaks briefly of racing in a rather dismissive tone, as something that is not at all a good measure of automobiles in general. He describes himself as someone who raced only because in the s through s, one had to race because prevailing ignorance held that racing was the way to prove the worth of an automobile.
Ford did not agree. But he was determined that as long as this was the definition of success flawed though the definition was , then his cars would be the best that there were at racing. Nevertheless, Ford did make quite an impact on auto racing during his racing years, and he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in By this point, Ford, nearing 80 years old, had had several cardiovascular events variously cited as heart attacks or strokes and was mentally inconsistent, suspicious, and generally no longer fit for such immense responsibilities.
Most of the directors did not want to see him as president. But for the previous 20 years, though he had long been without any official executive title, he had always had de facto control over the company; the board and the management had never seriously defied him, and this moment was not different. The directors elected him,  and he served until the end of the war. The administration of President Franklin Roosevelt had been considering a government takeover of the company in order to ensure continued war production,  but the idea never progressed. He died on April 7, , of a cerebral hemorrhage at Fair Lane , his estate in Dearborn, at the age of A public viewing was held at Greenfield Village where up to 5, people per hour filed past the casket.
Funeral services were held in Detroit's Cathedral Church of St. Paul and he was buried in the Ford Cemetery in Detroit. A compendium of short biographies of famous Freemasons , published by a Freemason lodge, lists Ford as a member. When he received the 33rd degree of the Scottish Rite in , he said, "Masonry is the best balance wheel the United States has. In , Ford's pastor, and head of his sociology department, Episcopal minister Samuel S.
Marquis, claimed that Ford believed, or "once believed," in reincarnation. Ford published an anti-smoking book, circulated to youth in , called The Case Against the Little White Slaver , which documented many dangers of cigarette smoking attested to by many researchers and luminaries. Henry Ford long had an interest in materials science and engineering.
Ford long had an interest in plastics developed from agricultural products, especially soybeans. He cultivated a relationship with George Washington Carver for this purpose. This project culminated in , when Ford patented an automobile made almost entirely of plastic , attached to a tubular welded frame.
It ran on grain alcohol ethanol instead of gasoline. The design never caught on. Ford was interested in engineered woods "Better wood can be made than is grown"  at this time plywood and particle board were little more than experimental ideas ; corn as a fuel source , via both corn oil and ethanol;  and the potential uses of cotton.
His brother in law, E. Kingsford , used wood scraps from the Ford factory to make the briquets. Ford was a prolific inventor and was awarded U. Ford had a vacation residence in Fort Myers, Florida next to that of Thomas Edison , which he bought in and used until approximately It is still in existence today and is open as a museum. He also had a vacation home known today as the "Ford Plantation" in Richmond Hill , Georgia which is still in existence today as a private community.
Ford started buying land in this area and eventually owned 70, acres square miles there.
The grand house, made of Savannah-gray brick, had marble steps, air conditioning, and an elevator. It sat on 55 acres of manicured lawns and flowering gardens.
The house became the center of social gatherings with visitations by the Vanderbilts, Rockefellers, and the DuPonts. It remains the centerpiece of The Ford Plantation today. He contributed substantially to the community, building a chapel and schoolhouse and employing numerous local residents.