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Psychological and physical dimensions are not specific behaviors although they may be so described. Better, they are a manner of behaving. This distinction is critical. Whatever role a manager plays, whatever script a manager follows, the "how" of such enactment will look like a combination of psychological and physical elements. Leadership skill may occur as the degree of psychological and physical appropriateness of behaviors. Psychological motivation and structure dimension of LLM. In the work setting, the psychological dimension motivation and structure incorporates people-related elements of both followers and tasks.

Both people and tasks have a psychological dimension. The psychological nature is that followers internalize variables whose effects then appear indirectly. For people, motivation is the psychological element. LLM motivation variables include anxiety, attitude, job involvement, ego involvement, self image, leader-member relations, and feelings of equity. On the task side, structure of work is also a psychological element. It encompasses variables that the organization establishes and controls and whose effects are subject to internalization.

These structure variables include task design, climate, complexity, lines of authority, clarity of goals, freedom autonomy , and financial rewards. Motivation and structure are complementary. As they come closer to covering the psychological demands of the work setting, need for leader action diminishes.

Leaders should intervene psychologically only when gaps exist between motivation and structure on the psychological dimension figure 1. A gap indicates need for leader diagnosis, evaluation, and planned actions -- derived from variables within the psychological dimension.

Importantly, actions both inside and outside the work unit can affect the psychological dimension.

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Physical skills and tools dimension of LLM. The Physical dimension skill and tools comprises task-oriented elements which the organization controls or followers have acquired, and which leaders can affect. Both people and tasks, then, have a physical dimension. For people, skill is a physical element in the work setting, the behavioral manifestation of attributes and capabilities relevant to accomplishment of work. Skill incorporates observable physical attributes a person brings to the work setting, including ability, age, health, knowledge, intelligence, level of education, endurance, stamina, energy level, and motor skills.


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For the task, the physical dimension means tools, including equipment, materials, supplies, information, time, and other physical resources necessary for work accomplishment and which the leader has position power to influence the organization to provide. In the work setting, skills and tools are complementary.

As they come closer to covering physical demands of the task, need for leader action diminishes. Leaders should intervene physically only when gaps exist between skills and tools. A gap indicates a need for leader diagnosis, evaluation, and planned actions -- derived from variables within the physical dimension. Importantly, actions both inside and outside the work unit can affect the physical dimension. Successful work then results when psychological and physical elements are fully complementary. The effects are: a the sum of all physical skills and tools elements covers the needs of the work setting from bottom to top in the diagrammed box of figure 3 , and b the sum of all psychological motivation and structure elements also meets work requirements from side to side in the diagrammed box in figure 3.


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People contribute to work accomplishment along the physical dimension by using their skills and contribute along the psychological dimension through their motivations. Task elements contribute to work accomplishment along the psychological dimension through structure and along the physical dimension through provision of tools. Convergence of all elements indicates no gap and requires no leader action. In any typical work unit, the people and task elements will not together cover the work setting completely figure 3.

An additional performance contribution must bridge the two-dimensional gap.

There is a psychological gap motivation and structure, vertically between structure of the task and motivation of the people. There is a physical gap skills and tools, horizontally between tools of the task and skills of the people. Such gaps challenge leaders to provide the critical link to cover the needs of the work setting. Distances along the two dimensions of the gap vertical and horizontal represent the appropriate leadership style. The how of bridging the gap comes in terms of supplementing for deficiencies in physical skills and tools and psychological motivation and structure elements.

Combined psychological and physical actions constitute the leader's proper style--in the short run. On a daily basis, the leader must ensure a match. Necessary leader intervention will directly match the size of gap s on either or both dimensions. Leaders should focus on the identified gap and act to link people and task. Large gaps require leaders to take large actions. With no gap, leaders need only monitor performance. The most effective leadership style provides exactly for missing psychological and missing physical elements. Viewing the larger picture, a manager will not recognize or seek to address a gap along the psychological or physical dimension without first recognizing the work environment and context in which the focus task occurs.

Vision, culture, and strategy of the organization will determine the work setting in which a manager operates. While a manager can and should exert influence on these elements external to the work unit, on a day-to-day basis the settings precipitate objectives and desired work outcomes.

From a solely task-performance perspective, a manager intervenes with actions along psychological or physical dimensions to fill existing short-term gaps.

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James M. It was founded based on the needs of companies to achieve corporate initiatives, leadership development, and goal driven strategies. Duck Duck Goose Leadership has extensive experience in recognizing inefficiencies within organizations and designing large-scale solutions to create better financial performance.

Here is what readers are saying about The Choice of Leadership:"Every executive should have a copy of this book. This is the only book I have read that covers leadership and ethics as a single entity.

Closing the gap between your best sales people and the rest

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